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The Portuguese media is governed by a High Authority designed to ensure press freedoms and access to information are maintained. At the San Juan Mountains, however, the east end of the border jumped up to 38o N. Portugal has been inhabited since Paleolithic times. In 1585, Ral eigh tried establishing a colony at Roanoke.� Although the natives of the North American east coast, particularly the southerly shores, had already suffered from numerous Spanish depredations and European-introduced epidemics,  the natives welcomed and fed the Roanoke pirate-colonists, who arrived via the Caribbean, where they plundered and traded with Spanish colonists.� The English pirate-colonists originally hunted for gold, and quickly wore out their native welcome, as they destroyed a town and burned its cornfields when a silver cup went missing.� The colony failed, with the survivors probably adopted into the native tribes.  Raleigh followed up the Roanoke failure with a fruitless quest for El Dorado in South America, in 1595.� He also sought to establish a beachhead to attack and seize Spain’s South American mines.� Raleigh spent 13 years in the Tower of London for alleged treason against James I, and was finally released to seek El Dorado again.� James I forbade Raleigh to harass the Spanish, who were at peace with England at that time, but Raleigh’s expedition attacked a Spanish outpost, his son died in the process, and Raleigh lost his head in 1618 to satisfy the Spanish Crown.� England's first per manent settlement in the New World was at Jamestown, founded in 1607.� By that time, Europeans had established their murderous intentions in that region, and Jamestown was a military outpost from the beginning, and no women accompanied the first landing.� As usual, the invaders sought gold, and their first task was building a fort in Pamunkey lands before the natives realized what was happening.� Due to European-introduced disease, those lands already had a small fraction of the human population that it possessed a century earlier.� It may have been no exaggeration when an elderly native told the English invaders in 1608 that he was the only surviving member of his family, going down his family tree for three generations.  � Jame stown's relationship between natives and invaders was largely hostile from the beginning.� Powhatan was the Pamunkey chief and his warriors attacked before the fort was finished.� The English strategy was intimidating the natives with their weaponry, which included a cannon.� Largely for self-serving reasons, Powhatan initially fed the starving invaders, and both sides played diplomatic games.� Powhatan’s younger brother, Opechancanough, captured John Smith, the most capable Jamestown leader, when Smith tried forming an alliance with a tribe independent of Powhatan.� Powhatan studied Smith and adopted him.� Powhatan probably thought that he was installing his adopted relative as the chief of his new, dependent, white-skinned tribe.� The English tried reversing the political situation by crowning Powhatan the next year, and make him a subject of King James by doing so.� Neither side probably fully appreciated what the other tried accomplishing with its political gestures.� The Eng lish then tried allying with Powhatan’s enemies, and Powhatan stopped feeding the invaders in 1608.� John Smith then raided neighboring villages and held people for ransom, including an infamous instance when he held a loaded gun against Opechancanough, as Smith extorted food.� In 1609, the English were starving, sick, and began spreading out along the shores in “self-sufficient” settlements.� In one expedition, Smith compelled the natives to “sell” an entire village, with its ripening cornfields, to the invaders.� War broke out, and Powhatan had his warriors encircle and starve out the Jamestown fort.�� The Englishmen resorted to cannibalism that winter, and many fled and took up residence with the natives, in the first recorded English instances of “going native” in the New World.
Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing Inc. (July 4, 2006)
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